Participle clauses are used to make language more efficient and concise. They are used to omit unnecessary or implicit information. To form a participle clause we must use a participle, meaning, a present participle (seeing), a past participle (seen) or having + past participle (having seen).

To review irregular participles see this post

 

We use participle clauses in these contexts:

 

Instead of a relative clause:

I have a brother living in Japan.

I have a brother who is living in Japan.

 

I am doing a course teaching me English.

I am doing a course that is teaching me English.

See our post on relative clauses

 

To give a reason:

Being the smartest person in the class, naturally I got the highest grade.

Because I am the smartest person in the class, naturally I got the highest grade.

 

Two talk about two simultaneous actions:

Waiting for my coffee, I sent you a Whatsapp message.

While/As I was waiting for my coffee, I sent you a Whatsapp message.

 

After prepositions:

By revising enough for the exam, you will get an excellent grade.

By revising If you revise enough for the exam, you will get an excellent grade.

 

We use a past participle when the phrase has a passive meaning as an alternative to the passive:

These shoes, fabricated in Spain, are excellent quality.

These shoes, which were fabricated in Spain, are excellent quality.

 

 

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