Participle clauses are used to make language more efficient and concise. They are used to omit unnecessary or implicit information. To form a participle clause we must use a participle, meaning, a present participle (seeing), a past participle (seen) or having + past participle (having seen).
To review irregular participles see this post
We use participle clauses in these contexts:
Instead of a relative clause:
I have a brother living in Japan.
I have a brother
who is living in Japan.
I am doing a course teaching me English.
I am doing a course
that is teaching me English.
See our post on relative clauses
To give a reason:
Being the smartest person in the class, naturally I got the highest grade.
Because I am the smartest person in the class, naturally I got the highest grade.
Two talk about two simultaneous actions:
Waiting for my coffee, I sent you a Whatsapp message.
While/As I was waiting for my coffee, I sent you a Whatsapp message.
By revising enough for the exam, you will get an excellent grade.
By revising If you revise enough for the exam, you will get an excellent grade.
We use a past participle when the phrase has a passive meaning as an alternative to the passive:
These shoes, fabricated in Spain, are excellent quality.
which were fabricated in Spain, are excellent quality.